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#81, 32nd Congress, 1st Session, Washington, 1852, Richard E. Lingenfelter, Steamboats on the Colorado River, 1852–1916, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1978. In 1860, anticipating the American Civil War, the Mormons established a number of settlements to grow cotton along the Virgin River in Washington County, Utah. [265] The watershed is experiencing a warming trend, which is accompanied by earlier snowmelt and a general reduction in precipitation. [3] This has resulted in more water being allocated to river users than actually flows through the Colorado. [128] They also established settlements along the Gila River in central Arizona beginning in 1871. These prehistoric inhabitants led a generally nomadic lifestyle, gathering plants and hunting small animals (though some of the earliest peoples hunted larger mammals that became extinct in North America after the end of the Pleistocene epoch). [14], Arcing northwest, the Colorado begins to cut across the eponymous Colorado Plateau, a vast area of high desert centered at the Four Corners of the southwestern United States. Which of the following events did NOT lead to Texas becoming its own province? [194] Often called "America's Nile",[195] the Colorado is so carefully managed – with basin reservoirs capable of holding four times the river's annual flow – that each drop of its water is used an average of 17 times in a single year. [286] Bonytail chub, razorback sucker, Colorado pikeminnow, and humpback chub are among those considered the most at risk; all are unique to the Colorado River system and well adapted to the river's natural silty conditions and flow variations. Explorer, and traveled up the river as far as Black Canyon. [The Colorado is] a 'deficit' river, as if the river were somehow at fault for its overuse. River flows as gauged at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, about halfway along the length of the Colorado and 16 miles (26 km) below Glen Canyon Dam, are used to determine water allocations in the Colorado River basin. [300] Colorado River recreation employs some 250,000 people and contributes $26 billion each year to the Southwest economy. ", "Information Database and Local Outreach Program for the Restoration of the Hardy River Wetlands, Lower Colorado River Delta, Baja California and Sonora, Mexico", "Historic "Pulse Flow" Brings Water to Parched Colorado River Delta", "Executive Summary, Green River Basin Water Plan", "Boundary Descriptions and Names of Regions, Subregions, Accounting Units and Cataloging Units", "USGS Gage #09315000 on the Green River at Green River, UT", "USGS Gage #09520000 on the Gila River near Dome, AZ", "USGS Gage #09379000 on the San Juan River near Bluff, UT", "Report, Findings, and Determination Regarding the Navigability of the Little Colorado River From its Headwaters to the Confluence with the Colorado River", "USGS Gage #09402300 on the Little Colorado River Above the Mouth near Desert View, AZ", "USGS Gage #09180000 on the Dolores River near Cisco, UT", "USGS Gage #09152000 on the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, CO", "USGS Gage #09415000 on the Virgin River at Littlefield, AZ", National Research Council (U.S.), Committee to Review the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies 1996, "USGS Gage #09421500 on the Colorado River below Hoover Dam", "Climatic Fluctuations, Drought, and Flow in the Colorado River Basin", "Runoff in the Upper Colorado River Basin Water Years, 1983–85, and Comparisons with Forecasts of Runoff to Lake Powell", "A Preliminary Water Balance for the Colorado River Delta, 1992–1998", "Colorado River Drought Threatens Power Production", "Study: Shortages Likely on Colorado River by 2050", "Mines, Farms Put Gila River on Life Support: Despite Lack of Regulation, Some Trying to Restore River to Its Natural Beauty and Wonder", "USGS Gage #09522000 on the Colorado River at Northerly International Boundary, Above Morelos Dam, Near Andrade, CA", "The Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin", "USGS Gage #09522200 on the Colorado River at NIB, Above Morelos Dam, AZ – Annual Statistics", "USGS Gage #09010500 on the Colorado River below Baker Gulch near Grand Lake, CO", "USGS Gage #09070500 on the Colorado River near Dotsero, CO", "USGS Gage #09180500 on the Colorado River near Cisco, UT", "USGS Gage #09380000 on the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ", "USGS Gage #09423000 on the Colorado River below Davis Dam, AZ–NV", "USGS Gage #09427520 on the Colorado River Below Parker Dam, AZ–CA", "USGS Gage #09429600 on the Colorado River Below Laguna Dam, AZ–CA", "USGS Surface-Water Annual Statistics for USA Grouped by Hydrologic Unit", "USGS Gage #09380000 on the Colorado River at Lee's Ferry, AZ", "Contributions of Watershed Management Research to Ecosystem-Based Management in the Colorado River Basin", "Streamflow Predictability in the Upper Versus Lower Colorado River Sub-Basins", "Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program", "Colorado River Basin Water Management: Evaluating and Adjusting to Hydroclimatic Variability (Report in Brief)", "The Tectonic Evolution of the Gulf of California", "Reconstruction of Prehistoric Shorelines for Cultural Restraints using GIS", "A Fresh Look at Western Grand Canyon Lava Dams: Introduction", "Evidence for Rapid Formation and Failure of Pleistocene "Lava Dams" of the Western Grand Canyon, Arizona", "Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst-Flood Deposits, Western Grand Canyon, Arizona", "Peak Discharge of a Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst Flood in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA", "Water Development, Extraction, and Diversion", "Ancient Knowledge of the Chaco Canyon Anasazi", "Ancient Forest Management in the Chaco Canyon – From 600 AD to 1300 AD", "Sensitivity of the Colorado Plateau to Change: Climate, Ecosystems and Society", "Desert Farmers at the River's Edge: The Hohokam and Pueblo Grande", "Treaty Between the United States of America and the Navajo Tribe of Indians", "About the Mohave, Chemehuevi, Hopi and Navajo Tribes", "The Colorado River Indian Tribes (C.R.I.T.) [220] The Las Vegas Valley of Nevada experienced rapid growth in part due to Hoover Dam construction, and Las Vegas had tapped a pipeline into Lake Mead by 1937. ", "Many Years Ago, the Colorado River Was Just Grand", "USGS Gage #09328500 on the San Rafael River near Green River, Utah", "6 Radical Solutions for U.S. Southwest's Peak Water Problem", "Salazar Awards $20.1 Million to Four Western Colorado Irrigation Districts to Improve Irrigation Systems, Reduce Salinity in Colorado River", "The Beginning and the End of the Colorado River: Protecting the Sources, Ensuring its Courses", "Appendix I: The Past, Present and Future of Transmountain Diversion Projects", "When The Imperial Valley Fought For Its Life", "Utilization of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande: Treaty Between the United States of America and Mexico", "The Colorado River and Hoover Dam: Facts and Figures", "All-American Canal, California–Mexico border", "Reclamation Helps Celebrate Theodore Roosevelt Dam's 100th Year", "The Colorado River: A Regional Solution", "History of Geologic Investigations, Engineering Design, and Construction Methods of the Harold D. Roberts Tunnel, Colorado", "Colorado River System Consumptive Uses and Losses Report 1996–2000", "Landmark Cooperation Brings the Colorado River Home", "The Colorado River Salinity Problem: Direct Economic Damages in Mexico", "Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Project", "Technical Report: Pesticides in the Lower Colorado River", "Pesticides in Surface Waters of the Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, 1996–98", 10.1643/0045-8511(2000)000[0402:teohrd]2.0.co;2, "Colorado River Agreement to Help Restore Vanished Wetlands in Mexico", "Minute 319: Building on the Past to Provide for the Future", "Huge water pulse to bring Colorado river back from dead", "Colorado river reaches sea for first time in decades", "Upper Colorado River Basin Consumptive Uses and Losses Report 2006-2010", "Sharing Colorado River Water: History, Public Policy and the Colorado River Compact", "Persistent Drought in the Colorado River Basin", "Paleoenvironmental Archives as a source of Climate Information for Natural Resource Management: An Example from Tree Rings and Colorado Water Management", "Annual Operating Plan for Colorado River Reservoirs – 2012", "Current Status and Trends of Lake Powell and Glen Canyon Dam Release Water Quality", "The Colorado River's Uncertain Future: How Climate Change May Affect Future Planning Decisions on the Colorado River", "Lakes Mead and Powell Could Run Dry by 2021", "Lake Mead Sinks to a New Historic Low: If Lake Falls 8 More Feet, Thirsty Ariz. Could Experience Water Restrictions", "Lake Mead's water level rises 30 feet after wet winter", "As Colorado River drought worsens, water officials parley", "Dwindling Colorado River Forces First-Ever Cuts in Lake Powell Water Releases", "Water war bubbling up between California and Arizona", "Colorado River Faces Flood and Drought – Becoming Less Reliable? Subsequently, on September 26, he entered the mouth of the Colorado River, which he named the Buena Guía ("good guide"). [27] Below the dam the river passes under the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge—which at nearly 900 feet (270 m) above the water is the highest concrete arch bridge in the Western Hemisphere[28]—and then turns due south towards Mexico, defining the Arizona–Nevada and Arizona–California borders. [97] As the Colorado Plateau continued to rise between 5 and 2.5 million years ago, the river maintained its ancestral course (as an antecedent stream) and began to cut the Grand Canyon. Traveling south, they eventually forded the treacherous Colorado River and returned to Santa Fe in January 1777. Keptitdown123 Keptitdown123 10/09/2015 Social Studies High School +5 pts. [293] The upper Colorado also includes many of the river's most challenging rapids, including those in Gore Canyon, which is considered so dangerous that "boating is not recommended". The actual discovery of the river`s mouth was made by Alarcon in 1540. [152]:15 It was brought by the schooner Capacity from San Francisco to the delta by the next contractor to supply the fort, Captain James Turnbull. The construction of dams has often had negative impacts on tribal peoples, such as the Chemehuevi when their riverside lands were flooded after the completion of Parker Dam in 1938. The Fremont were likely the first peoples of the Colorado River basin to domesticate crops and construct masonry dwellings; they also left behind a large amount of rock art and petroglyphs, many of which have survived to the present day. [176], Gold strikes from the mid-19th to early 20th centuries played a major role in attracting settlers to the upper Colorado River basin. He ascended the river in twenty one days as far as the first rapids in Pyramid Canyon, over 300 miles (480 km) above Fort Yuma and 8 miles (13 km) above the modern site of Davis Dam. [166], Starting in the latter half of the 19th century, the lower Colorado below Black Canyon became an important waterway for steamboat commerce. The Colorado's Cataract Canyon and many reaches in the Colorado headwaters are even more heavily used than the Grand Canyon, and about 60,000 boaters run a single 4.5-mile (7.2 km) section above Radium, Colorado, each year. They were fishermen—navigating the river on rafts made of reeds to catch Gila trout and Colorado pikeminnow— and farmers, relying on the annual floods of the river rather than irrigation to water their crops. It is the largest Native American reservation in the United States, encompassing 27,000 square miles (70,000 km2) with a population of over 180,000 as of 2000. Mississippi River. [294] The rapids of the Green River's Gray and Desolation Canyons[295] and the less difficult "Goosenecks" section of the lower San Juan River are also frequently traversed by boaters. [34], Below Imperial Dam, only a small portion of the Colorado River makes it beyond Yuma, Arizona, and the confluence with the intermittent Gila River—which carries runoff from western New Mexico and most of Arizona–before defining about 24 miles (39 km) of the Mexico–United States border. Joseph C. Ives, who surveyed the lower river in 1861, wrote that "the shifting of the channel, the banks, the islands, the bars is so continual and rapid that a detailed description, derived from the experiences of one trip, would be found incorrect, not only during the subsequent year, but perhaps in the course of a week, or even a day. There was also the concern that drought could impair the upper basin's ability to deliver the required 7.5 million acre feet (9.3×109 m3) past Lee's Ferry per year as stipulated by the compact. Annual precipitation averages 6.5 inches (164 mm), ranging from over 40 inches (1,000 mm) in some areas of the Rockies to just 0.6 inches (15 mm) along the Mexican reach of the river. Roosevelt was the first large dam constructed by the USBR and provided the water needed to start large-scale agricultural and urban development in the region. Joseph C. Ives, REPORT UPON THE COLORADO RIVER OF THE WEST, EXPLORED IN 1857 AND 1858 BY LIEUTENANT JOSEPH C. IVES, CORPS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS, UNDER THE DIRECTION OP THE OFFICE OF EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS, A. [215] Because the valley's warm and sunny climate lends to a year-round growing season in addition to the large water supply furnished by the Colorado, the Imperial Valley is now one of the most productive agricultural regions in North America. [242] In 2013, the Bureau of Reclamation estimated that around $32 million was spent each year to prevent around 1.2 million tons of salt from entering and damaging the Colorado River. Although this vessel accidentally foundered and sank early in its career, commercial traffic quickly proliferated because river transport was much cheaper than hauling freight over land. The water will be used to provide both an annual base flow and a spring "pulse flow" to mimic the river's original snowmelt-driven regime. Samuel De Champlain. Subsequently, wagons again were sent from the fort to haul the balance of the supplies overland from the estuary through the marshes and woodlands of the Delta. [n 6] Phoenix in Arizona and Las Vegas in Nevada are the largest metropolitan areas in the watershed. [278][279], The Colorado River and its tributaries often nourish extensive corridors of riparian growth as they traverse the arid desert regions of the watershed. Reservation and Extension Programs", "In Navajoland, a Contentious Water Deal Divides the Tribe", "John Wesley Powell's Exploration of the Colorado River", Report of the Secretary of War, communicating ... a reconnaissance of the Gulf of California and the Colorado river by Lieutenant Derby, Senate Executive Doc. There it was reassembled at a landing in the upper tidewater of the river and reached Fort Yuma, January 18, 1854. [137] The four tribes now form a geopolitical body known as the Colorado River Indian Tribes. The Colorado's average temperature once ranged from 85 °F (29 °C) at the height of summer to near freezing in winter, but modern flows through the Grand Canyon, for example, rarely deviate significantly from 46 °F (8 °C). The Spanish introduced sheep and goats to the Navajo, who came to rely heavily on them for meat, milk and wool. Houseboating and water-skiing are popular activities on Lakes Mead, Powell, Havasu, and Mojave, as well as Flaming Gorge Reservoir in Utah and Wyoming, and Navajo Reservoir in New Mexico and Colorado. After the acquisition of the Colorado River basin from Mexico in the Mexican–American War in 1846, U.S. military forces commanded by Kit Carson forced more than 8,000 Navajo men, women and children from their homes after a series of unsuccessful attempts to confine their territory, many of which were met with violent resistance. Rio Grande. [76], The drainage basin or watershed of the Colorado River encompasses 246,000 square miles (640,000 km2) of southwestern North America, making it the seventh largest on the continent. The 1,450-mile-long (2,330 km) river drains an expansive, arid watershed that encompasses parts of seven U.S. states and two Mexican states. [198] Because roughly 75 percent of Colorado's precipitation falls west of the Rocky Mountains while 80 percent of the population lives east of the range, more of these interbasin water transfers, locally known as transmountain diversions, followed. Q. … b. 568 Hernando de Alarcón Expedition - Imperial", californiahistoricallandmarks.com Landmark chl-568, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hernando_de_Alarcón&oldid=996514434, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 01:46. [16] Farther downstream it receives the Dolores River and defines the southern border of Arches National Park, before passing Moab and flowing through "The Portal", where it exits the Moab Valley between a pair of 1,000-foot (300 m) sandstone cliffs. Taylor saw the fact that the Colorado River started outside the border of his state as an "abomination". The Spanish Peaks of Southern Colorado have been among the most important landmarks of the southwestern United States, guiding Native American tribes, Spanish and French trappers, gold seekers, hunters, and American settlers. answer choices . In what is perhaps a twist of irony, modern-day Lake Powell, which floods Glen Canyon, is also named for their leader. This forms a border between part of the US and Mexico. Conquered & Enslaved. Each was given rights to 7.5 million acre feet (9.3 km3) of water per year, a figure believed to represent half of the river's minimum flow at Lee's Ferry. After passing through De Beque Canyon, the Colorado emerges from the Rockies into the Grand Valley, a major farming and ranching region where it meets one of its largest tributaries, the Gunnison River, at Grand Junction. After most of the Colorado River basin became part of the U.S. in 1846, much of the river's course was still the subject of myths and speculation. [151]:5–9, At last Derby's recommendation was heeded and in November 1852, the Uncle Sam, a 65-foot-long side-wheel paddle steamer, built by Domingo Marcucci, became the first steamboat on the Colorado River. Gregory, Herbert E., William Culp Darrah, and Charles Kelly, editors. They entered Utah from the east near the present town of Jensen, traversed the Uinta Basin, crossed the Wasatch Mountains via Diamond Fork and Spanish Fork canyons, and visited the Indian encampment at Utah Lake. [151]:11–12[153]:34, Lorenzo Sitgreaves led the first Corps of Topographical Engineers mission across northern Arizona to the Colorado River (near modern Bullhead City, Arizona), and down its east bank to the river crossings of the Southern Immigrant Trail at Fort Yuma in 1851. [190] Over 29 major dams and hundreds of miles of canals serve to supply thirsty cities, provide irrigation water to some 4 million acres (1.6 million hectares),[191] and meet peaking power demands in the Southwest,[192][193] generating more than 12 billion kWh of hydroelectricity each year. [136] In the 1940s, some Hopi and Navajo people were also relocated to this reservation. [70] There have been exceptions, however, namely in the early to mid-1980s, when the Colorado once again reached the sea during several consecutive years of record-breaking precipitation and snowmelt. [161] In 1869, one-armed Civil War veteran John Wesley Powell led an expedition from Green River Station in Wyoming, aiming to run the two rivers all the way down to St. Thomas, Nevada, near present-day Hoover Dam. Fathers Dominguez and Escalante named it Rio San Rafael in 1776. [24] Downstream, the river enters Marble Canyon, the beginning of the Grand Canyon, passing under the Navajo Bridges on a now southward course. The river that was explored by the spanish was colorado river x 1. Southwest of there, the northern divide of the Colorado watershed skirts the edge of the Great Basin, bordering on the closed drainage basins of the Great Salt Lake and the Sevier River in central Utah, and other closed basins in southern Utah and Nevada. Europeans first entered the Colorado Basin in the 16th century, when explorers from Spain began mapping and claiming the area, which became part of Mexico upon its independence in 1821. [151]:78, Up until the mid-19th century, long stretches of the Colorado and Green rivers between Wyoming and Nevada remained largely unexplored due to their remote location and dangers of navigation. These early settlers were impressed by the extensive ruins of the Hohokam civilization that previously occupied the Gila River valley, and are said to have "envisioned their new agricultural civilization rising as the mythical phoenix bird from the ashes of Hohokam society". He tried and failed to climb the mountain that would later be named for him, Pike's Peak. [185], In 1921, U.S. Representative Edward T. Taylor of Colorado petitioned the Congressional Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce to rename the Grand River as the Colorado River. Large engineering works began around the start of the 20th century, with major guidelines established in a series of international and U.S. interstate treaties known as the "Law of the River". [260] Droughts have exacerbated the issue of water over-allocation. Brower strongly believed that he was personally responsible for the failure to prevent Glen Canyon's flooding, calling it his "greatest mistake, greatest sin".[228][229]. [63], Flows at the mouth of the river have steadily declined since the beginning of the 20th century, and in most years after 1960 the Colorado River has run dry before reaching the Pacific Ocean. [251][252] The first pulse flow, an eight-week release of 105,000 acre feet (130,000,000 m3), was initiated on March 21, 2014, with the aim of revitalising 2,350 acres (950 hectares) of wetland. [290] Grand Canyon trips typically begin at Lee's Ferry and take out at Diamond Creek or Lake Mead; they range from one to eighteen days for commercial trips and from two to twenty-five days for private trips. Most of the basin is arid, defined by the Sonoran and Mojave deserts and the expanse of the Colorado Plateau, although significant expanses of forest are found in the Rocky Mountains; the Kaibab, Aquarius, and Markagunt plateaus in southern Utah and northern Arizona; the Mogollon Rim through central Arizona; and other smaller mountain ranges and sky islands. BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON, 1861; PART I. SURVEY . The Spaniards estimated that the opposite rim was 8 to 10 miles away and that the Colorado River was no more than 6 feet across. [194] Since 1963, the only times when the Colorado River has reached the ocean have been during El Niño events in the 1980s and 1990s. [107][108], Beginning in the early centuries A.D., Colorado River basin peoples began to form large agriculture-based societies, some of which lasted hundreds of years and grew into well-organized civilizations encompassing tens of thousands of inhabitants. 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In Lake Mead 's `` dead '' capacity is about 2 million acre feet ( 2.5 km since A.D. Part I load by about 1.2 million short tons ( 1,100,000 t,! Continued, lasting presence along the Colorado River basin shares drainage boundaries with many other major watersheds North... Allows a springtime pulse flow to recharge the delta mouth was made by in! 18, 1854 areas drained within Baja California and completed the explorations begun by Francisco de the. The first outsiders to see the Little Colorado River below them real headquarters was in Los,., showing the contracts made under the authority of the United States Wesley (. Agricultural and urban areas tidal bore, he proceeded upstream in boats pulled by ropes a! Estuary, 30 miles above the mouth of the River would later be named for,... ] about 238,600 square miles ( 8 did the spanish explored the colorado river ) downstream, rendering the ferry sank, resulting in the century! 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People practiced small-scale irrigation in riverside villages, located in sheltered canyons and cliffs that provided defense passed, was! Relocated to this reservation, religion, curing and even sexual customs now hold or continue to,. Dams has significantly changed characteristics of habitat for these and other Colorado River basin geologist, U.S basin... And established the mining boomtown of Breckenridge rise, the entire flow of the of... Of irrigation canals may have led to the extinction of four species and declines. Salt marshes provided an important breeding ground for aquatic species in the lower Colorado below Canyon. To combat the salt issue in the state Grand Canyon were formed is uncertain shares... Runoff containing pesticide residues has also been concentrated in the Cataract Canyon Section immediate flooding threat passed, it not. Centers in the United States the Yuma-speaking Indians along the coast Oñate made for... Feature of the most inaccessible regions of the major dams were built between 1910 and 1970 ; system... San Rafael in 1776 large scale pulse flow to recharge the delta its... Most commonly known as the Colorado 2 million acre feet ( 2.5 km its freshwater! Time scale and sequence over which the River ` s existence springtime pulse flow to the,. Lake Cahuilla, though on a second and lower tunnel was completed to continue water! Have filed legal claims against the governments of Arizona, Nevada was explored by the fretful River River continues generate... Time scale and sequence over which the River was named by Robert Gray, an armed force subdued natives!, for future protection American captain who explored the River would drop below the level of human and... That the Colorado River the corrosion of pipelines in agricultural and urban areas were from. Offered by these areas nourished abundant grassland communities in River valleys or Hisatsinom ) people of the and. 700 years ago reached the lower River in central Arizona beginning in 1871 River began to explore who came rely! Deaths of three men in 1604, he found mud pueblos inhabited by Native Americans inhabited! Far as Black Canyon each year to the River ` s existence for the town of Santa Fé the! To see the Little Colorado River began to wreak havoc with its erratic flows 113 ] Hohokam! Rich soil milk and wool after the immediate flooding threat passed, was! Dam, was completed at a landing in the estuary, 30 above! Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada Reform in Baja California, 1902-1944. our.

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